Cite this paper:
Lin Xinyu, Qiu Yun, Du Yan, Zhou Xiwu, Xuan Lili, Xu Jindian. Study on the utilization of satellite remote sensing for variation characteristic of sea surface salinity in the Bay of Bengal[J]. Haiyang Xuebao, 2016, 38(5): 46-56

Study on the utilization of satellite remote sensing for variation characteristic of sea surface salinity in the Bay of Bengal

Lin Xinyu1, Qiu Yun1, Du Yan2, Zhou Xiwu1, Xuan Lili3, Xu Jindian1
1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, China;
2. State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China;
3. National Marine Data and Information Service, Tianjin 300171, China
Sea surface salinity (SSS) from Aquarius during August 2011 and March 2014, together with in situ salinity data (e.g. Argo) are used to explore seasonal and interannual variations of the SSS in the Bay of Bengal. It shows that Aquarius SSS has a significant positive correlation with Argo SSS. The Aquarius SSS is relatively lower than Argo SSS, and there exists a negative bias of -0.13 between these two data. The negative bias is larger in the northern bay than that in the southern bay (-0.28 vs -0.10). The bias mainly comes from the different depth between Aquarius and Argo floats in measuring SSS. Aquarius SSS captures main seasonal variations of the SSS in the bay, such as the intrusion of saltier water from Arabian Sea and seasonal migrations of the freshwater plumes in the northern bay. Besides, the SSS reveals anomalous salting (freshening) in the bay during the spring 2011 (2012). Our results suggest that the reduced (enhanced) precipitation during the summer 2010 (2011) in the northern bay reduced (enhanced) freshening in that region, and the anomalous salting (freshening) water was advected southward by the surface-layer circulation causing anomalous salting (freshening) in the whole bay. Meanwhile, the positive (negative) wind stress curl anomaly also contribute to the anomalous salting (freshening) event during spring 2011 (2012) in the bay via impacting the vertical mixing processes.
Key words:    Bay of Bengal    Aquarius    sea surface salinity    ocean circulation   
Received: 2015-06-29   Revised:
PDF (8922 KB) Free
Print this page
Add to favorites
Articles by Lin Xinyu
Articles by Qiu Yun
Articles by Du Yan
Articles by Zhou Xiwu
Articles by Xuan Lili
Articles by Xu Jindian
[1] Sengupta D, Bharath Raj G N, Shenoi S S C. Surface freshwater from Bay of Bengal runoff and Indonesian throughflow in the tropical Indian Ocean[J]. Geophysical Research Letters, 2006, 33(22): L22609.
[2] Dube S K, Rao A D, Sinha P C, et al. Implications of climatic variations in the fresh water outflow on the wind-induced circulation of the Bay of Bengal[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 1995, 29(16): 2133-2138.
[3] Vinayachandran P N, Murty V S N, Ramesh Babu V. Observations of barrier layer formation in the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978-2012), 2002, 107(C12): SRF 19-1-SRF 19-9.
[4] Thadathil P, Muraleedharan P M, Rao R R, et al. Observed seasonal variability of barrier layer in the Bay of Bengal[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978-2012), 2007, 112(C2):C02009.
[5] Masson S, Luo J J, Madec G, et al. Impact of barrier layer on winter-spring variability of the southeastern Arabian Sea[J]. Geophysical research letters, 2005, 32(7):L07703.
[6] Varkey M J, Murty V S N, Suryanarayana A. Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea[J]. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 1996, 34: 1-70.
[7] 张玉红,杜岩,徐海明,等.赤道印度洋中部断面东西水交换的季节变化及其区域差异[J]. 海洋学报, 2012, 34(2): 30-38. Zhang Yuhong, Du Yan, Xu Haiming, et al. Seasonal variability of the west-east water mass exchange on the section of central equatorial Indian Ocean and its regional difference[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2012,34(2):30-38.
[8] Akhil V P, Durand F, Lengaigne M, et al. A modeling study of the processes of surface salinity seasonal cycle in the Bay of Bengal[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 2014, 119(6): 3926-3947.
[9] Murty V S N, Sarma Y V B, Rao D P, et al. Water characteristics, mixing and circulation in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon[J]. Journal of Marine Research, 1992, 50(2): 207-228.
[10] Wu L J, Wang F, Yuan D L, et al. Evolution of freshwater plumes and salinity fronts in the northern Bay of Bengal[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978—2012), 2007,112(C08):C08017.
[11] Vinayachandran P N, Shankar D, Vernekar S, et al. A summer monsoon pump to keep the Bay of Bengal salty[J]. Geophysical Research Letters, 2013, 40(9): 1777-1782.
[12] Zhang Y H, Du Y, Zheng S J, et al. Impact of Indian Ocean Dipole on the salinity budget in the equatorial Indian Ocean[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 2013, 118(10): 4911-4923.
[13] Subrahmanyam B, Murty V S N, Heffner D M. Sea surface salinity variability in the tropical Indian Ocean[J]. Remote Sensing of Environment, 2011, 115(3): 944-956.
[14] Zeng L L, Timothy Liu W, Xue H J, et al. Freshening in the South China Sea during 2012 revealed by Aquarius and in situ data[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 2014, 119(12): 8296-8314.
[15] Du Y, Zhang Y H. Satellite and Argo observed surface salinity variations in the tropical Indian Ocean and their association with the Indian Ocean Dipole mode[J]. Journal of Climate, 2015, 28(2): 695-713.
[16] Le Vine D M, Lagerloef G S E, Colomb F R, et al. Aquarius: An instrument to monitor sea surface salinity from space[J]. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, 2007, 45(7): 2040-2050.
[17] Roemmich D, Gilson J. The 2004—2008 mean and annual cycle of temperature, salinity, and steric height in the global ocean from the Argo Program[J]. Progress in Oceanography, 2009, 82(2): 81-100.
[18] Huffman G J, Bolvin D T, Nelkin E J, et al. The TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis (TMPA): Quasi-global, multiyear, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scales[J]. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2007, 8(1): 38-55.
[19] Yu L S, Weller R A. Objectively analyzed air-sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981-2005)[J]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2007, 88(4): 527-539.
[20] Oki T, Sud Y C. Design of Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP)-A global river channel network[J]. Earth interactions, 1998, 2(1): 1-37.
[21] Tang W Q, Yueh S H, Fore A G, et al. Validation of Aquarius sea surface salinity with in situ measurements from Argo floats and moored buoys[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 2014, 119(9): 6171-6189.
[22] Reagan J, Boyer T, Antonov J, et al. Comparison analysis between Aquarius sea surface salinity and World Ocean Database in situ analyzed sea surface salinity[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 2014, 119(11): 8122-8140.
[23] Le Vine D M, Lagerloef G S E, Pellerano F, et al. The Aquarius/SAC-D mission and status of the Aquarius instrument[C]//Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing of the Environment, 2008. MICRORAD 2008. IEEE, 2008: 1-4.
[24] Ebuchi N, Abe H. Evaluation of sea surface salinity observed by Aquarius[C]//Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2014 IEEE International. IEEE, 2014: 4427-4430.
[25] 王新新, 杨建洪, 赵冬至, 等. Aquarius/SAC-D卫星盐度数据在中国南海的准确度评估[J]. 热带海洋学报, 2013, 32(5): 23-28. Wang Xinxin, Yang Jianghong, Zhao Dongzhi, et al. Assessment of Aquarius/SAC-D salinity data accuracy in the South China Sea[J]. Journal of Tropical Oceanography,2013,32(5):23-28.
[26] Xuan L L, Qiu Y, Xu J D, et al. Hydrography and circulation in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean during April-May 2011[J]. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 2012, 5(4): 284-289.
[27] Dai A, Trenberth K E. Estimates of freshwater discharge from continents: Latitudinal and seasonal variations[J]. Journal of hydrometeorology, 2002, 3(6): 660-687.
[28] Pant V, Girishkumar M S, Udaya Bhaskar T V S, et al. Observed interannual variability of near-surface salinity in the Bay of Bengal[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 2015,120(5):3315-3329.
[29] 邱云,李立. 孟加拉湾上层地转环流周年变化的遥感研究[J]. 海洋学报, 2007, 29(3): 39-46. Qiu Yun, Li Li. Annual variation of geostrophic circulation in the Bay of Bengal observed with TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data[J]. Haiyang Xuebao, 2007, 29(3): 39-46.
Haiyang Xuebao